The Referendum has come to symbolise the broader struggle for Indigenous social justice fought over these decades.
The Indigenous land rights movement also gained momentum in the early s, as huge quantities of bauxite were discovered in northern Australia, on Aboriginal missions and reserves. It was the beginning of a mining boom, and also a struggle for land rights for the people who had lived on these lands since time immemorial. In , The Menzies government authorised plans to mine the Gove peninsula, in the vicinity of the Yirrkala mission in Arnhem Land.
should national interests be pursued? • Why do you think nations and nation- states pursue self- determination? • What do you think are the advantages and. The right of a people to self-determination is a cardinal principle in modern international law The principle does not state how the decision is to be made, nor what the Such groups often pursued independence and sovereignty over territory, but sometimes a different sense of autonomy has been pursued or achieved.
The Yirrkala residents responded via two petitions written on bark in the Gupapungu language, presented to the House of Representatives. Although the Yirrkala residents lost their claim, the Yirrkala bark petition raised the profile of Indigenous land rights in Australia, and prompted similar claims throughout the continent, such as Lake Tyers in south western Victoria, and the Gurindji strikers in the Northern Territory.
Both of these later campaigns resulted in the return of lands to their Indigenous inhabitants. When the Whitlam government came to power in , self-determination replaced assimilation as the official approach to Indigenous affairs. The Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Commission ATSIC was established, composed of Indigenous peoples whose role was to maximise Indigenous participation in the development and implementation of policies that affected them. Some very significant progress had been made as a result of the Indigenous civil rights movement, and on the surface, self-determination sounded great for Indigenous people.
However, in reality the transition was complex and challenging for many Indigenous people and communities.
In , the House Standing Committee on Aboriginal Affairs tabled a report that was highly critical of the the way that self-determination policies had been implemented in Indigenous communities. Some criticisms included:.
In many cases, these failures resulted in further challenges and issues in Indigenous communities. Self-determination remained government policy until the election of the Howard government in During the Howard years, ATSIC was abolished, allegedly due to mismanagement, causing some people to claim that the self-determination approach to Indigenous affairs had failed. Others argue that ATSIC was never sufficiently independent from government interference, concluding that self-determination has never been properly tested in Australia, despite previous governments adopting the term to describe their top-down approach.
The concept of self-determination as a process whereby Indigenous communities take control of their futures and decide how they will address the issues facing them remains central to Indigenous rights activism and is fundamental to the United Nations International Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples.
Close Search Search. What's self-determination? Considering that under the provisions of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights everyone is entitled to a social and international order in which the rights and freedoms set forth in that Declaration can be fully realized,.
Recalling further the relevant agreements, conventions, resolutions, recommendations and other instruments of the United Nations and its specialized agencies concerning the integral development of the human being, economic and social progress and development of all peoples, including those instruments concerning decolonization, the prevention of discrimination, respect for and observance of, human rights and fundamental freedoms, the maintenance of international peace and security and the further promotion of friendly relations and co-operation among States in accordance with the Charter,.
Recalling the right of peoples to self-determination, by virtue of which they have the right freely to determine their political status and to pursue their economic, social and cultural development,. Recalling also the right of peoples to exercise, subject to the relevant provisions of both International Covenants on Human Rights, full and complete sovereignty over all their natural wealth and resources,.
Mindful of the obligation of States under the Charter to promote universal respect for and observance of human rights and fundamental freedoms for all without distinction of any kind such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status,.
Considering that the elimination of the massive and flagrant violations of the human rights of the peoples and individuals affected by situations such as those resulting from colonialism, neo-colonialism, apartheid, all forms of racism and racial discrimination, foreign domination and occupation, aggression and threats against national sovereignty, national unity and territorial integrity and threats of war would contribute to the establishment of circumstances propitious to the development of a great part of mankind,.
Concerned at the existence of serious obstacles to development, as well as to the complete fulfilment of human beings and of peoples, constituted, inter alia, by the denial of civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights, and considering that all human rights and fundamental freedoms are indivisible and interdependent and that, in order to promote development, equal attention and urgent consideration should be given to the implementation, promotion and protection of civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights and that, accordingly, the promotion of, respect for and enjoyment of certain human rights and fundamental freedoms cannot justify the denial of other human rights and fundamental freedoms,.
Considering that international peace and security are essential elements for the realization of the right to development,.
Reaffirming that there is a close relationship between disarmament and development and that progress in the field of disarmament would considerably promote progress in the field of development and that resources released through disarmament measures should be devoted to the economic and social development and well-being of all peoples and, in particular, those of the developing countries,. Recognizing that the human person is the central subject of the development process and that development policy should therefore make the human being the main participant and beneficiary of development,. Recognizing that the creation of conditions favourable to the development of peoples and individuals is the primary responsibility of their States,.
Aware that efforts at the international level to promote and protect human rights should be accompanied by efforts to establish a new international economic order,. Confirming that the right to development is an inalienable human right and that equality of opportunity for development is a prerogative both of nations and of individuals who make up nations,.
States shall take resolute steps to eliminate the massive and flagrant violations of the human rights of peoples and human beings affected by situations such as those resulting from apartheid, all forms of racism and racial discrimination, colonialism, foreign domination and occupation, aggression, foreign interference and threats against national sovereignty, national unity and territorial integrity, threats of war and refusal to recognize the fundamental right of peoples to self-determination. All States should promote the establishment, maintenance and strengthening of international peace and security and, to that end, should do their utmost to achieve general and complete disarmament under effective international control, as well as to ensure that the resources released by effective disarmament measures are used for comprehensive development, in particular that of the developing countries.
Steps should be taken to ensure the full exercise and progressive enhancement of the right to development, including the formulation, adoption and implementation of policy, legislative and other measures at the national and international levels. Skip to main navigation Skip to content.
Welcome to the United Nations. It's your world. UN Search. Declaration on the Right to Development at Declaration on the Right to Development The General Assembly, Having considered the question of the right to development, Decides to adopt the Declaration on the Right to Development, the text of which is annexed to the present resolution.
Table of Contents. Nationalism emerged as a uniting ideology not only between competing powers, but also for groups that felt subordinated or disenfranchised inside larger states; in this situation, self-determination can be seen as a reaction to imperialism. Manela, The Wilsonian Moment , Report of the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples In , The Menzies government authorised plans to mine the Gove peninsula, in the vicinity of the Yirrkala mission in Arnhem Land.
The human right to development also implies the full realization of the right of peoples to self-determination, which includes, subject to the relevant provisions of both International Covenants on Human Rights, the exercise of their inalienable right to full sovereignty over all their natural wealth and resources. Article 2 The human person is the central subject of development and should be the active participant and beneficiary of the right to development.